According to a recent story in The Lancet, eight years ago, researchers implanted laboratory-grown vaginal tissue into four women who happened to have a rare syndrome — Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser Syndrome (MRKHS) — that resulted in absent or under-developed genital structures. Women who have this condition may completely or partially lack a uterus, cervix, and vaginal canal.
At the time of their surgery, the four women ranged in age from 13 to 18. The procedure had previously only been attempted with laboratory mice.
This technique, developed at the Wake Forest Institute, involves taking a sample of whatever vaginal tissue is present, along with a few cells of smooth muscle and a small amount of mucosal tissue, and growing them on a cylindrical scaffold in a sterile environment. The small samples of cells then form into the three necessary layers of tissue for a fully functioning vagina: a protective outer layer, a lubricating mucosal layer, and a muscle layer.
After these vaginal canals were implanted into the four subjects, the study followed them through eight years of aftercare. During this time, the women reported that their vaginas responded normally to sexual arousal. The two patients with fully-formed uteruses were also able to menstruate regularly.
In addition to visiting the story in The Lancet, you can read more about this over at Kinsey Confidential.